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The Financial Stability Board (FSB) report, along with other sources, offers significant insights into the impact of multifunction crypto-asset intermediaries (MCIs) and key market events, such as the collapse of FTX in November 2022 and the crypto-asset market turmoil in May/June 2022. These events have underscored the crucial role and potential risks posed by MCIs in the crypto-asset markets.

MCIs are firms or groups of affiliated firms providing a wide range of services and products centered around a trading platform. Many engage in proprietary trading and investment, while some issue, promote, and distribute crypto-assets, including stablecoins. The structural vulnerabilities they can exacerbate in the markets include issues related to leverage and liquidity mismatch. Their vulnerabilities are akin to traditional finance, such as technology and operational vulnerabilities, leverage, liquidity mismatch, and interconnections. Some combinations of functions within a single MCI can amplify these vulnerabilities, especially in the absence of effective controls, operational transparency, and conflict of interest management. The centrality of MCIs in the crypto-asset ecosystem and their concentration and market power pose additional risks. These vulnerabilities could spill over into the traditional financial system through various channels​​​​.

The FSB’s assessment indicates that the threat to financial stability from an MCI’s failure is limited at present, but significant information gaps make this a qualitative assessment. The financial stability implications of MCIs depend on the development of the crypto-asset sector, the evolution of MCIs’ roles, and the implementation and enforcement of comprehensive, consistent global regulations. The global reach of MCIs complicates regulation due to their complex organizational structures, incorporation in crypto-friendly jurisdictions, and potential for regulatory arbitrage​​​​.

The collapse of FTX and other key players in 2022 had a profound impact on the cryptocurrency market, leading to a drop in prices and prompting a regulatory crackdown. This event, along with the earlier collapse of stablecoin TerraUSD, significantly affected Bitcoin and other major tokens. Bitcoin, in particular, lost more than 65% of its value in 2022, plummeting to its lowest since 2020. The overall crypto market also took a hit, dropping from a peak value of $3 trillion in November 2021 to a low of $796 billion in 2022, following the FTX implosion. However, the market has shown resilience, with the value recovering to above $1 trillion in 2023. Venture capital investment in crypto firms also experienced a decline, dropping significantly in the third quarter of 2022 compared to earlier in the year. This decline wasn’t solely attributed to the FTX failure but was part of a broader slowdown that began with the collapse of the TerraUSD ecosystem​​.

The analysis of these developments highlights the intricate interplay between MCIs, market dynamics, regulatory landscapes, and financial stability. The evolution of the crypto market, particularly in light of these recent upheavals, will be critical in shaping future regulatory approaches and market resilience.

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